Resources

Books

Universal Design: Creating Inclusive Environments

Universal Design: Creating Inclusive Environments

The standard text on the topic, Universal Design: Creating Inclusive Environments introduces designers to the principles and practice of designing for all people. From the foundations of accessibility and aging to the practice of designing interiors, products, housing, and transportation systems, all aspects of this growing field are explored. It covers best practice examples to demonstrate the value of universal design as both a survey of the field and reference for researchers.

Order from Wiley or Amazon.

Inclusive Design: Implementing and Evaluation

Inclusive Design: Implementation and Evaluation

As part of the PocketArchitecture Series, this volume focuses on inclusive design and its allied fields—ergonomics, accessibility, and participatory design. This book aims for the direct application of inclusive design concepts and technical information into architectural and interior design practices, construction, facilities management, and property development. A central goal is to illustrate the aesthetic, experiential, qualitative, and economic consequences of design decisions and methods. The book is intended to be a ‘first-source’ reference—at the desk or in the field—for design professionals, contractors and builders, developers, and building owners.


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Accessible Public Transportation: Design Service for Riders with Disabilities

Accessible Public Transportation: Designing Service for Riders with Disabilities

The United States is home to more than 54 million people with disabilities. This book looks at public transit and transportation systems with a focus on new and emerging needs for individuals with disabilities, including the elderly. The book covers the various technologies, policies, and programs that researchers and transportation stakeholders are exploring or putting into place. Examples of innovations are provided, with close attention to inclusive solutions that serve the needs of all transportation users.

Order from  Taylor & Francis Group or Amazon.

Inclusive Housing: A Pattern Book

Inclusive Housing: A Pattern Book

An invaluable resource for designing communities that accommodate social diversity and provide equitable opportunities for all residents, Inclusive Housing focuses on housing that provides access to people with disabilities while benefiting all residents. It incorporates inclusive design practices into neighborhoods and housing designs without compromising other important design goals.

Order from W.W. Norton or Amazon

The state of the science in Universal Design

The State of the Science: Emerging Research and Developments in Universal Design

This e-book contains the latest research related to universal design that was presented at the RERC-UD’s State of the Science events. The publication also emphasizes the growing need for evidence-based practice in the field. It also identifies and prioritizes future research needs.

Order from Bentham Sciences Publishers Ltd.

Anthropometry of Wheeled Mobility Project

This report includes analysis of data on a sample of almost 500 people who use wheeled mobility devices. Findings are compared to those of three other countries and current standards in all four countries. The research includes demographics, device characteristics, and measurement of structural and functional anthropometry. Topics covered include: selected dimensions of unoccupied and occupied devices, knee and toe clearances, reaching abilities, turning abilities, and grip strength. It also contains a study on the usability of doors for a sub-sample of participants.

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Evaluating the Impact of Complete Streets Initiatives

Complete Streets is an emerging urban planning solution that balances the needs of pedestrians, bicyclists, drivers, and transit users. Complete Streets often include traffic calming measures, bike lanes, and intersections that make pedestrian crossing easier and safer. Over 600 municipalities in the United States have adopted Complete Streets (CS) policies to date (Seskin, 2014). This report provides a starting point for municipalities seeking to create a “report card” of indicators that demonstrate the impact of their Complete Streets initiatives. The report describes measures assessing seven areas of impact: bicycle/pedestrian, citizen feedback, economic, environmental, health, multi-modal level of service, and safety.
 
 
AARP - Increasing Home Access: Designing for Visitability

Increasing Home Access: Designing for Visitability

This AARP Public Policy Institute Research Report discusses visitability initiatives, which support aging independently in one’s home and community. The report discusses barriers to visitability implementation and opportunities for further acceptance of these design ideas in the construction of new homes.

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Visitability: An Inclusive Design Approach for Housing

This publication provides a summary of the goals, benefits, and features of inclusive housing design. It includes an excerpt from the the book entitled Inclusive Housing: A Pattern Book. Excerpts from the book along with an annotated version of the new ICC/ANSI A117.1 Type C visitability standards will give you a better understanding of what visitability is and why it is important to housing design.

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Visit-ability: an Approach to Universal Design in Housing

This publication offers a complete overview of visitability requirements, the philosophy of the initiative, and resources in United States. The booklet contains “best practice” case studies highlighting successful implementation of specific visitability projects in several different communities nationwide.

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DR-01 Architectural Wayfinding

Good architectural wayfinding reduces the confusion of visitors and mistakes by employees, saving time and money and preventing accidents. Understanding a few basic principles of architectural wayfinding design can help designers to enhance building performance and to provide more inclusive solutions.

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DR-02 Automated Tool for Evaluating Product Usability

Evaluating design usability remains a challenge as usability studies are generally time consuming, costly and often compromised when examining product use among user groups that cannot give reliable user feedback, such as older adults with dementia. Intelligent computer-based systems have the potential to automate (or semi-automate) the process of design evaluation, thereby reducing the cost, time and variability in assessing various designs.

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DR-03 Emergency Exits

The legibility and comprehension of exit signs in buildings is of vital importance to all of us in case of emergency. Guidelines in designing exit signs conflict and may be misleading as there is a lack of evidence based research in this area. A summary of the most recent findings is given below.

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DR-04 Familiarity and Usability of Products by People with Dementia

Older adults with dementia frequently encounter (often insurmountable) difficulties when trying to use everyday products and tools that are required to complete activities of daily living (ADL). When coupled with the substantial amount of care this population requires, it is important to support both people with dementia and caregivers through universal design practices to enable greater access to products by the dementia population.

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DR-05 Levels of Inclusive Housing

A disability should not restrict anyone from playing a vital role in home life. Four initiatives involving inclusive housing are accessible design, visitability, adaptability, and lifespan design. Inclusive housing concepts such as these seek to redefine housing as an enabling technology for the lifespan, to help change social stereotypes and to improve self-concept of all residents.

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DR-06 Pedestrian Winter Accessibility

Outdoor environments that are usable in bare ground conditions are not necessarily usable in snow/ice covered conditions (Wennberg et al., 2009). Accessibility for the general public and people with disabilities in a year-round perspective needs to be further examined and a guideline for promoting universal winter accessibilities needs to be established.

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DR-07 Protective Winter Clothing

The legibility and comprehension of exit signs in buildings is of vital importance to all of us in case of emergency. Guidelines in designing exit signs conflict and may be misleading as there is a lack of evidence based research in this area. A summary of the most recent findings is given below.

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DR-08 Protective Winter Footwear

 The design of winter footwear is an important element in protecting users and allowing for safer mobility. Important factors for the design of footwear include comfort, thermal protection, cost, and aesthetics. Two key aspects of winter footwear design that relate to universal design are slip resistance and usability. Results gleaned from the literature form strong starting points on which to develop guidelines for the design of winter footwear and anti-slip devices that do not yet exist.

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DR-09 Scooters in the Built Environment

Powered mobility scooters are an increasingly popular mode of transport for people with limited mobility. This study addresses the challenge of developing new built environment accessibility guidelines which meet the needs of the growing number of scooter users who may need access indoors in public spaces.

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DR-10 Simulator Systems and Universal Design

Exciting new technologies are now allowing researchers to simulate a broad range of complex environmental conditions in a safe and precisely-controlled manner. A description of a state-of-the-art simulation laboratory, referred to as iDAPT (Intelligent Design for Adaptation, Participation and Technology) that is currently being developed at the Toronto Rehabilitation Institute, is provided.

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DR-11 Text Legibility and Readability of Large Format Signs in Building and Sites

A signage system that is readable and legible by all users is a fundamental part of environmental communications.  To date, limited empirical data exists to determine the ideal characteristics for legibility and readability of large format displays like those typically used in buildings and on sites. A summary of the most recent findings is provided below.

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DR-12 The Effectiveness of Universal Design: Case Study Demonstrations

Evaluating the effectiveness of universal designs is traditionally done through case studies conducted in field settings by experts. The following two field case studies investigate claims that universally designed environments are more usable by all consumers than similar non-universally designed environments.

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DR-13 Vision Aspects of Universal Design

Some measurable degree of vision loss is an inevitable consequence of aging and many diseases that cause greater levels of vision loss become more prevalent as people get older. With the aging of the baby boomer generation, the number of people suffering from untreatable vision loss is steadily increasing, posing a significant challenge for UD adherents. In order to respond to this challenge, UD designers must understand the common functional consequences of vision loss in the elderly (Haegerstrom-Portnoy, 2005).

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DR-14 Spatial Orientation, Environmental Perception and Wayfinding

Wayfinding design is integral to universal design because it fosters easy comprehension and use of built entities at all scales. Successful wayfinding design allows people to (1) determine their location within a setting; (2)  determine their destination; (3) develop a plan to take them from their location to their destination; and (4) execute the plan and negotiate any required changes (Mayor’s Office for People with Disabilities, 2001).

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DR-15 Clear Floor Area for Wheeled Mobility: Redefining the ‘common wheelchair’

The clear floor area for wheeled mobility represents the minimum floor area required by users of wheeled mobility devices to access elements in the built environment as well as for determining the size of spaces designated for wheeled mobility users (such as on buses, seating areas in movie theaters & sports stadiums). The clear floor area width dimension also informs the minimum clearance width for successful passage through corridors, doorways and wheelchair ramps.

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DR-16 Clear Floor Area for Wheeled Mobility when Reaching or Grasping

The clear floor area for wheeled mobility represents the minimum floor area required by users of wheeled mobility devices to access elements in the built environment. This area is typically depicted as a rectangular space the dimensions of which are based on static measurements of occupied length and occupied breadth of wheeled mobility devices (i.e., with the occupant seated in their own wheeled mobility device). However, for tasks that involve reaching or grasping to adjacent design elements such as sink faucets, door handles, or when using automated teller machines, information kiosks, additional floor space should be provided to allow for flexibility of use by accommodating users that are right or left hand dominant, as well as their preferred reach direction i.e., forward, sideways, or an intermediate reach direction. For instance, anthropometry research on wheeled mobility users found that about 26% (55 of the 213) men and 28% (43 out of 156) women were left-handed, which is much higher than would be expected in the general population.

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DR-17 Knee and Toe Clearances for Wheeled Mobility Users

Adequate clearance space under a design element to the floor is essential so that wheeled mobility users can approach sufficiently close in a forward direction without any obstruction. Such clearance space is critical when using elements like bathroom sinks, drinking fountains, kitchen counter-tops, information kiosks and teller machines.

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DR-18 Pinch Grip Forces for Wheeled Mobility Users

In the process of operating controls or performing activities of daily living, a variety of pinch grips get used e.g., a lateral (key) pinch, pulp pinch, thumb-forefinger tip pinch, palmar pinch. The universal design of hand-operated products and environmental features should apply an understanding of the gripping abilities of the broadest range of potential users, including individuals with disabilities.

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DR-19 Power Grip Forces for Wheeled Mobility Users

The design of hand-operated products and environmental features should apply an understanding of the grip strength capacity of the broadest range of potential users, including individuals with disabilities. A commonly used grip posture is the power grip, wherein the handle is perpendicular to the forearm, and the handle is squeezed by the partially flexed fingers and the palm while the thumb applies counter pressure. Measurements of power grip strength also serve as a clinical tool for assessing the upper extremity function of individuals by comparing with normative data.

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DR-20 Functional Reach Capability for Wheeled Mobility Users

An understanding of functional reach capability of wheeled mobility users is required when designing tasks that involve picking and/or placing of objects (e.g., shopping aisles, kitchen shelves) or selecting the optimal locations for controls, devices and objects in the built environment (e.g., elevator buttons, light switches).

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DR-21 Turning Space for Wheeled Mobility Users – the 360-deg Turn

Sufficient space ought to be provided in the built environment for wheeled mobility users to maneuver and complete a 360-degree turn, when necessary. Further, accessibility guidelines for the built environment need to accommodate the turning space requirements for manual and powered wheelchairs as well as scooters that are becoming increasingly popular since the guidelines and standards were first written.

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DR-22 Tactile Maps as Navigational Aids

There are many different forms of orientation aid available to help blind or visually impaired individuals navigate the built environment.  Tactile maps are one such aid, and are an essential part of wayfinding for those with limited or no sight. Whether it is walking to a desired location, finding their way around an office building or visiting an amusement park, blind and visually impaired people can perform tasks with the same independence as sighted individuals through the use of tactile maps.

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DR-23 Analysis of Seat Height for Wheeled Mobility Devices

The following report provides a brief analysis of occupied seat heights for wheeled mobility device users in the U.S. The data are based on findings from the Anthropometry of Wheeled Mobility (AWM) Project, and comprises of detailed measurements collected from 495 users of manual wheelchairs, power wheelchairs and scooters. Our analyses show that occupied seat height varies considerably across the three categories of mobility devices, as well as across gender. In general, seat heights among manual wheelchair users were lowest, followed by power wheelchairs, with scooter users having the tallest seat heights. Within each device group, seat heights for males were typically greater than females. Given the large diversity within the wheeled mobility population, a considerable range of adjustability is needed to design seating and transfer surfaces that provide equivalent heights for all users.  We recommend that this range be between 17 inches minimum to 25 inches maximum. A minimum height above 17 inches would exclude about 6% of the manual wheelchair users in our sample.

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Brindle, E., Koontz, A.,M., Kankipati, P., Feathers, D. (2009). Factors that effect the drivability of power wheelchairs and scooters, Procceedings of the Rehabilitation Engineering and Assistive Technology Society of North America Conference, CD-Rom, June 23-27, 2009.

Drury, C., Koontz, A., Feathers, D., Kankipati, P., Paquet, V. and Lin, J-F. (2009). Controllability of manual and powered wheelchairs for spinal cord injury users. Proceedings of the 52nd Annual Meeting of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, September 22-26, 2008.

D’Souza, C., Paquet, V., and Steinfeld, E. (2012). Clearance space envelopes of wheeled mobility device users for computer workstations.In HFES (Ed.), 56th Annual Meeting of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society (HFES) (pp. 2373-2377). Boston, MA: HFES.

D’Souza, C., Paquet, V., Steinfeld, E., & Feathers, D. (2010). Anthropometric data visualization tools to improve accessibility of built environments. In: Proceedings of 3rd International Conference on Applied Human Factors and Ergonomics, 2010 AHFE International, Miami, Florida, Taylor & Francis, Ltd.

D’Souza, C., Steinfeld, E., Paquet, V., & Feathers, D. (2010). Space requirements for wheeled mobility devices in public transportation: An analysis of clear floor space requirements. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board.

D’Souza, C., Steinfeld, E., & Paquet, V. (2009). Functional reach abilities of wheeled mobility device users: toward inclusive design. Proceedings of the 2009 International conference on Inclusive Design, INCLUDE 2009, ISBN 978-1-905000-80-7, Royal College of Art, London, UK, April 2009.

D’Souza, C., Steinfeld, E., & Paquet, V. (2009). Functional reach for wheeled mobility device users: A comparison with ADA-ABA guidelines for accessibility. In: Proceedings of the Rehabilitation Engineering Society of North America (RESNA) Annual Conference 2009, New Orleans, June 2009.

D’Souza, C., Feathers, D., & Paquet, V. (2007). Constructing three-dimensional models of individuals and their wheeled mobility devices from landmark data, Technical Paper 2007-01-2494. Paper presented at the 2007 SAE Digital Human Modeling.

D’Souza, C., Feathers, D., & Paquet, V. (2007). Developing and modeling three-dimensional digital models of individuals and their wheeled mobility device. Digital Human Modeling for Design and Engineering Symposium. 2007-DHM-53. SAE International.

Feathers, D. (2009). Mitigating anthropometric measurement variation: Applied tolerances for static anthropometric landmark digitizations in three-dimensional space. In: Proceedings of the 17th World Congress on Ergonomics: An International Ergonomics Association Triennial Congress..

Feathers, D. (2005). Digital human modeling and measurement considerations for wheeled mobility device users. In: SAE 2004 Transactions, Journal of Aerospace, Vol. 113-1. SAE International.

Feathers, D. (2004). Digital human modeling and measurement considerations for wheeled mobility device users. In: Digital Human Modeling for Design and Engineering Symposium. 2004-01-2135. SAE International.

Feathers, D. and Paquet, V. (2006). Three-dimensional variability of static anthropometric dimensions: Considering anatomy, behavior and process. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 50th Annual Meeting (pp. 1380-1383).

Feathers, D., Paquet, V. (2006). Three-dimensional variability of static anthropometric dimensions: Considering anatomy, behavior and process, Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 49th Annual Meeting.

Feathers, D., Paquet, V., & Drury C. (2004). Measurement consistency and three-dimensional electromechanical anthropometry, International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, 33(3): 181-190.

Feathers, D., Paquet, V., & Drury, C. (2002). Effects of automation of measurement error and consistency in anthropometry. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 46th Annual Meeting (pp. 1215-1219).

Feathers, D., Paquet, V., & Polzin, J. (2002). Reliability of structural anthropometric measurements with traditional and semi-automated approaches. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 46th Annual Meeting.

Feathers, D., Paquet, V., & Steinfeld, E. (2004). Anthropometry manual for three dimensional measurement. Buffalo, NY: Center for Inclusive Design and Environmental Access.

Feathers, D., Polzin, J., Paquet, V., Lenker, J. and Steinfeld, E. (2001). Comparison of traditional and electromechanical approaches for structural anthropometric data collection. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 45th Annual Meeting (pp. 1036-1039).

Feathers, D. and Steinfeld, E. (2008). Subjective ratings of accessibility using full-scale bathroom environments. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 52nd Annual Meeting. (pp. 723-727).

Joseph, C., D’Souza, C., Paquet, V., and Feathers, D. (2010). Comparison of hand grip strength between wheeled mobility device users and non-disabled adults. In Proceedings of 3rd International Conference on Applied Human Factors and Ergonomics, 2010 AHFE International, Miami, Florida, Taylor and Francis, Ltd.

Jui-Feng, L. Drury, C. and Paquet, V (2006). A quantitative methodology for assessment of wheelchair controllability. In ? (Ed.), Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 50th Annual Meeting. San Francisco, California: HFES.

Koontz, A., M., Brindle, E. D., Kankipati, P., Feathers, D., & Cooper, R. A. (2010). Design features that affect the maneuverability of wheelchairs and scooters. Arch Phys Med Rehabil, 91(5), 759-764.

Lenker, J. and Paquet, V. (2001) Alternative approaches to sampling for anthropometric studies of persons with disability, Proceedings of Anthropometrics of Disability: An International Workshop, (11-1)-(11-7).

Paquet, V. (2009). Moving from accommodation to universal design. Proceedings of the 52nd Annual Meeting of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, September 22-26, 2008.

Paquet, V. (2006). Effective use of observations for job analysis for ergonomics practice. In ? (Ed.), Proceedings of the 15th Triennial Congress of the International Ergonomics Association.

Paquet, V. and Feathers, D. (2004). An anthropometric study of manual and powered wheelchair users. International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, 33(3), 191 – 204.

Paquet, V. and Feathers, D. (2004). Anthropometry. In: W. Bainbridge (Ed.), Berkshire Encyclopedia of Human-Computer Interaction (pp. 26-31). Great Barrington, MA: Berkshire Publishing Group.

Paquet, V., Feathers, D. and Lenker, J. (2001). Three-dimensional measurements, semi-standardized postures and clothing: structural anthropometric methods for persons with disabilities. In: Proceedings of Anthropometrics of Disability: An International Workshop, (8-1)-(8-9).

Paquet, V. and Steinfeld, E. (2010). ‘Preface’, Assistive Technology, 22: 1, 1 — 2
To link to this Article: DOI: 10.1080/10400430903501371

Paquet, V. and Steinfeld (2004). Space Requirements for Wheeled Mobility: An International Workshop. Final Project Report to the U.S. Access Board, March, 2004.

Steinfeld, E. (2004). Modeling spatial interaction in anthropometric research. International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, 33(3), pp. 265-278.

Steinfeld, E., D’Souza, C., & Maisel, J. (2010). Clear Floor Space For Contemporary Wheeled Mobility Users. Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Mobility and Transport for Elderly and Disabled Persons (TRANSED 2010), Hong Kong, June 2-4, 2010.

Steinfeld, E., D’Souza, C., Paquet, V., and White, J. (2010). Clear floor area for wheeled mobility users. In Proceedings of 3rd International Conference on Applied Human Factors and Ergonomics, 2010 AHFE International, Miami, Florida, Taylor and Francis, Ltd.

Steinfeld, E. and Feathers, D. (2006). Space requirements for aging wheeled mobility users. In: International Conference on Aging, Disability and Independence.

Steinfeld, E., Lenker, J., Paquet, V. (2002). Anthropometrics of Disability: An International Workshop. Final Project Report to the U.S. Access Board, February, 2002.

Steinfeld, E., Maisel, J., and Joseph, C. ad Maisel, J. (2010). Anthropometry of wheeled mobility: Final Report. Buffalo, NY: IDEA Center.

Steinfeld, E., Maisel, J., Feathers, D. and D’Souza, C. (2010). ‘Anthropometry and Standards for Wheeled Mobility: An International Comparison’, Assistive Technology, 22: 1, 51 — 67. To link to this Article: DOI: 10.1080/10400430903520280

Steinfeld, E., Maisel, J., Feathers, D., & D’Souza, C. (2009). Standards and anthropometry for wheeled mobility. Buffalo: NY: IDeA Center.

Steinfeld, E., Maisel, J., & Feathers, D. (2006). Wheeled mobility space requirements and maneuvering: An International Comparison of Standards and Research. Paper presented at the Rehabilitation Engineering and Assistive Technology Society of North America Conference, Atlanta, GA.

Steinfeld, E., Maisel, J., & Feathers, D. (2006). Anthropometry and standards for wheeled mobility: An international comparison. Buffalo, NY: IDEA Center.

Steinfeld, E., Maisel, J., & Feathers, D. (2006). Wheeled mobility space requirements and maneuvering: An International Comparison of Standards and Research. In: Rehabilitation Engineering and Assistive Technology Society of North America Conference.

Steinfeld, E., Paquet, V., & Feathers, D. (2004). Space requirements for wheeled mobility devices. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 48th Annual Meeting.

Steinfeld, E., Paquet, V., Lenker, J., D’Souza, C., & Maisel, J. (2010). Universal Design Research on Boarding and Using Buses. Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Mobility and Transport for Elderly and Disabled Persons (TRANSED 2010), Hong Kong, June 2-4, 2010.

Steinfeld, E., Paquet, V. and Lenker, J. (2002) New development in the anthropometry of wheelchair users. Proceedings of the Universal Design 2002 Conference, Yokahoma, Japan.

Basnak, M. (2014). Architectural Practice in Small Towns: A Study of the Architect-Client Relationship in the Western Erie Canal Region. Buffalo, NY: University at Buffalo, State University of New York.

Bieri, Rohde, Danford, Steinfeld, Snyder, and Triolo (2004). Development of a new assessment of effort and assistance in standing pivot transfers with functional electrical stimulation. Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine. Volume 23, 226-231.

Bieri, Triolo, Danford, & Steinfeld (2000). A Functional Performance Measure for Effort and Assistance Required for Sit-to-Stand and Standing Pivot Transfer Maneuvers. Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine. Spring 2000, Volume 23, 3. *

Bieri, Triolo, Danford & Steinfeld (2000). A Measure of Functional Performance for Sit-to-Stand and Standing Pivot Transfer Maneuvers. Proceedings of the 2nd National VA Rehabilitation Research & Development Service. Washington, DC: VA Rehabilitation Research & Development Service, 185. *

Chau, A., Dionne, T., Lenker, J., Paquet, V., Nasarwanji, M. (2008). Disability simulation as a tool for product usability testing. Proceedings of the 9th Annual Human Factors Inter-University Student Conference. Buffalo, NY.

Danford, G.S., and Steinfeld, E. (1999). Measuring the Influences of Physical Environments on the Behaviors of People with Impairments. In E. Steinfeld & S. Danford (Eds.) Measuring Enabling Environments. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers. 111-137.

Maisel, J. L. (2014). Factors Influencing Outdoor Walking Activity in Older Adults. Buffalo, NY: University at Buffalo, State University of New York.

Steinfeld, E., and Danford, G.S. (2000). Measuring Handicapping Environments. In G. Gresham (Ed.) Rehabilitation Outcomes Measurement: The State of the Art in the Year 2000 (Special issue), Journal of Rehabilitation Outcomes Measurement, Volume 4:4, 5-8.

Steinfeld, E., and Danford, G.S. (Eds.) (1999). Measuring Enabling Environments. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers.

Steinfeld, E. , and Danford, G.S. (1999). Theory as a Basis for Research on Handicapping Environments. In E. Steinfeld, E. , and Danford, G.S. (Eds.) Measuring Enabling Environments. In E. Steinfeld & S. Danford (Eds.) Measuring Enabling Environments. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers. 11-33.

Danford, G. S., Grimble, M. D., Maisel, J. L. (2009). Benchmarking the Effectiveness of Universal Design. Leadership in Architectural Research between Academia and the Profession. San Antonio, Texas: The Architectural Research Centers Consortium.

Danford, G.S. (2004). Assessing the benefits of universal design in fast food restaurants. Proceedings of the International Conference on Design for the 21st Century, Forum 3: 1-5.

Danford, G. S. (2001). The claimed benefits of universal design: A case study demonstration. 2001 International Poster Session: Selected Projects. Washington, DC: Association of Collegiate Schools of Architecture, 6.

Danford, G.S. and Maurer, J. (2005). Empirical tests of the claimed benefits of universal design. Proceedings of the Thirty-sixth Annual International Conference of the Environment Design Research Association. Edmond, OK: Environmental Design Research Association, 123-128.

Danford, G. S. and Maurer, J. (2004). Perceptions and performance as indicators of universal design’s claimed benefits. Proceedings of the Annual International Conference of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society. Santa Monica, CA: Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, 1106-1109.

Danford, G.S., Grimble, M. and Maisel, J. (in press). Benchmarking the effectiveness of universal design. Leadership in Architectural Research Between Academia and the Profession. San Antonio, TX: Architectural Research Centers Consortium.

Danford, G.S., Grimble, M. and Maisel, J. (in press). Case studies and evidence-based practice: Benchmarking the effectiveness of universal design. State of the Science: Emerging Research and Developments in Universal Design. Oak Park, Illinois: Bentham Science Ltd.

Steinfeld, E., D’Souza, C., and White, J. (2014). Developing evidence-based standards: A case study in knowledge translation. Assistive Technology Research Series, 35, 89 – 98.

Fernie G, Dutta T, Li Y, Hsu J. 2008. Minimum Standards for New Dwellings to Facilitate Aging in Place. In J. A. Veitch (Ed.), Proceedings of the 1st Canadian Building and Health Sciences Workshop (pp. 57-64). Ottawa, ON: National Research Council of Canada.

Steinfeld, E., D’Souza, C., White, J. (2014). Developing Evidence-Based Standards: A Case Study in Knowledge Translation. Assistive Technology Research Series, 35, 89-98.

Steinfeld, E., & Levine, D. (1998). Technical Report: CABO/ANSI A117.1 Standard. Buffalo, NY: The Center for Inclusive Design and Environmental Access, School of Architecture and Planning SUNY/Buffalo.

Steinfeld, E. (2006). The fair housing act. In G.L. Albrecht (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Disability (pp. ??). Thousand Oaks CA: Sage.

Steinfeld, E. and Salmen, J. (2005). Accessibility codes and standards. In G.L. Albrecht (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Disability (pp. 13-16). Thousand Oaks CA: Sage. 

Hsu, J., Shaw, R., Novak, A., Li, Y., Ormerod, M., Newton, R., Dutta, T., Fernie, G., 2015. Slip resistance of winter footwear on snow and ice measured using maximum achievable incline. Ergonomics. 0, 1–12. doi:10.1080/00140139.2015.1084051

Hsu, J., Li, Y., Dutta, T., Fernie, G., 2015. Assessing the performance of winter footwear using a new maximum achievable incline method. Applied Ergonomics, 50, pp.218–225.

Li, Y., Ravindran, S., Katchky, A., Dutta, T., Fernie, G., 2015. Effects of icy surfaces on gait parameters in young and older people. 37th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBS). August 25-29, Milan, Italy.

Ravindran, S., Li, Y., Montgomery, R., Dutta, T., Fernie, G., 2015. Gait analysis of older adults on slippery, cross slope surfaces. 37th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBS). August 25-29, Milan, Italy.

Benjamin, L., Li, Y., Ravindran, S., Dutta, T., Fernie, G., 2015. Slope perception in mobility impaired older adults. 37th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBS). August 25-29, Milan, Italy.

Benjamin, L., Li, Y., Dutta, T., Fernie, G., 2015. Validation of the maximum achievable angle test for performance of winter footwear on level ice surfaces. 4th International Conference and Exhibition on Occupational Health & Safety. August 24-25, Toronto, Canada.

Boubalos, J., Murnaghan, L.M., Alman, B.A., Howard, A., Kelley, S., Narayanan, U., Fernie, G., Li, Y (2013). Slippery Slope: An Analysis of Crutch Ambulation in Winter Conditions. Proceedings of 68th COA Annual Meeting. Winnipeg, Canada: COA.

Denbeigh, K. (2013). Slips During Gait on Winter Surfaces: Evaluation of Ice Cleat Design and Slip Definition. Toronto, Canada: Institute of Biomaterials and Biomedical Engineering, University of Toronto.

Duta, T., Hsu, J., Li, Y., and Fernie, G. (2008). Ambulatory monitoring of plantar pressure for detecting difficulty of walking on ice. Toronto Rehabilitation Institute, Toronto, Canada.

Hsu, J., Li, Y., Dutta, T., Fernie, G (2013). Measuring performance of slip resistant winter footwear on snowy and icy slopes. 2014 National Fall Prevention conference. Toronto, Canada.

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